Clean technology mainly includes recycling, renewable energy (wind power, solar power, biomass, hydropower, biofuels), and many other appliances that are now more energy efficient. Clean technology is used to generate electricity and fuels that minimize environmental pollution.1 The term "Cleantech" was coined by Nick Parker and Keith Raab, founders of the Cleantech Group2, from 2002 onwards to describe clean technologies, especially including solar, biofuels, fuel cells, water remediation, and renewable power generation.

Though the Renewable energy in India as a sector is still underdeveloped, the Government of India has been making conscious efforts to focus on this sector. In 1982, a separate Department of Non- Conventional Energy Sources (DNES) was created in the Ministry of Energy to look after new and renewable energy. A separate Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in 1992 was formed and in 2006 a separate Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) was set up.

India is the 5th largest power generator in the world and is estimated to be the 3rd largest by the year 2030. In 2010 India accounted for 5.78% of the world's overall carbon emission and by 2030 it is expected to double.3 Renewable energy has started making visible impact in the Indian energy scenario by contributing to around 12% in the national electric installed capacity.4

Solar and Wind Energy sectors are very active in India. Over the span of three years more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financed through 2,000 bank branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricity grid does not yet extend.5 Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-year partnership between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre, and two of India's largest banks, the Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank.6 The Government of India has also launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. Through this plan it proposed to generate 1,000 MW of power by 2013 and up to 20,000 MW grid-based solar power, 2,000 MW of off-grid solar power and covers 20 million sq meters with collectors by the end of the final phase of the mission in 2020.7 The development of wind power in India has significantly increased in the last few years. It is estimated that 6,000 MW of additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power.8 Apart from these, activities are seen in Bio fuel and waste management sectors too.


Indian companies have begun to explore foreign stock exchanges as a source of funds. At the same time, Venture Capitals and Private Equity players have started showing increase in Solar and Wind energy companies. There is an increase in the Merger and acquisition, Joint Ventures or collaboration activities in recent times due to policies and support from the Government including 100% foreign direct investment under automatic route.

Recently, companies involved in wind, solar, hydro, biofuels and geothermal energy generation, Energy infrastructure, Energy storage, Industrial manufacturing, manufacture of nanotech, bio, chemical and other materials with Cleantech applications, Recycling and Waste, Transportation and waste management are very active.


  • Leading Indian companies: Suzlon, Orient Green Power, Indowind Energy, Suryachakra Power Company, NEPC India, Azure PowerAuro MiraHusk Power Systems, RRB Energy, Moser Baer Solar Energy, Renew Power, Jain Irrigation Systems, Tata BP Solar India Ltd, Sun Technics, Energy Systems Pvt Ltd, Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, HHV Solar Technologies Pvt Ltd,Waari Group, Shastha Biofuels
  • Important industry associations: Solar Energy Society of India (SESI), Indian Wind Energy Association, World Institute of Sustainable Energy, Indian Wind Power Association – IWPA, Indian Wind Turbine Manufactures Association - IWTMA
  • Important Government and non-government organizations/Agencies: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy – MNRE, Central Electricity Authority (CEA), State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs), The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency – IREDA, Solar Energy Centre, Centre for Wind Energy Technology- C-WET, Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy - SSS NIRE, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre – AHEC, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)


India does not have any specific laws and regulations that govern the renewable energy sector but within various policies relating to electrification some incentives for renewable energy have been given.

The following acts, regulations and policies play an important role. 9

  • The electricity act 2003
  • The National Electricity Policy 2005
  • The National Tariff Policy (NTP) 2006
  • The National Rural Electrification Policy
  • The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
  • Various state specific regulations and policies


The renewable energy market is fast growing in India and has been getting the attention of various investors and players. The government of India is also incentivizing this sector by proposing various policies and guidelines. If India's wind, solar, biomass, and hydro energy resources are channelized properly, this sector could bring significant change in the power generation for the country. Though there are government policies and guidelines, specific regulations and laws will assist in bringing more clarity and growth to the sector.



3 The Confederation of Danish Industry Report


5 Consumer financing program for solar home systems in southern India

6 UNEP wins Energy Globe award

7 Sethi, Nitin (November 18, 2009). "India targets 1,000mw solar power in 2013". Times of India.

8 India to add 6,000 mw wind power by 2012; but below target,


Nishith Desai Associates 2013. All rights reserved.